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Eugene Onegin

Eugene Onegin

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Template:About Template:Infobox Book Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. It was one of the classics of Russian literature and its hero served as the model for a number of Russian literary heroes. It was published in serial form between 1825 and 1832. The first complete edition was published in 1833, and the edition on which the current accepted version is based was published in 1837.

The work's primary defining feature is that it is almost entirely written in verses of iambic tetrameter with the unusual rhyme scheme "aBaBccDDeFFeGG", where the lowercase letters represent feminine rhymes while the uppercase letters represent masculine rhymes. This form has become known as the "Onegin stanza" (or "Pushkin sonnet").

The story is told by an idealised version of Pushkin, who often digresses from the story and while the plot of the novel is quite scant the book is more loved for the telling than what is told. It is partly because of this garrulous narrator that the book has been compared to Tristram Shandy.

Contents

Plot

Eugene Onegin, a Russian dandy who is bored with life, inherits a country mansion from his uncle. When he moves to the country he strikes up an unlikely friendship with the minor poet Vladimir Lensky. One day Lensky takes Onegin to dine with the family of his fiancée Olga Larina. At this meeting Olga's bookish and countrified sister, Tatiana (Tanya), falls in love with Onegin. During the night Tatiana writes a letter to Onegin professing her love and sends it to him. While this is something a heroine in one of Tatiana's French novels would have done, Russian society would consider it inappropriate for a young, unmarried girl to take the initiative. Contrary to her expectations, Onegin does not reply by letter. The two meet on his next visit where he rejects her advances in a speech that has been described as tactful yet condescending.

Later Lensky nonchalantly invites Onegin to Tatiana's nameday celebration promising a small celebration with just Tatiana, her sister, and parents. At the celebration Onegin finds a grandiose ball reminiscent of the fast-paced world he has grown tired of. To exact revenge on Lensky, Onegin proceeds to flirt and dance with Olga. Lensky leaves in a rage and in the morning issues a challenge of a duel to Onegin. At the duel Onegin kills Lensky, then flees.

Tatiana visits Onegin's mansion where she reads through his books and the notes in the margins, and through this comes to believe that Onegin's character is merely a collage of different literary heroes and so there is no "real Onegin". Later Tanya is taken to Moscow and introduced to society. In this new environment Tanya matures to such an extent that when Onegin later meets her in St Petersburg, he fails to recognise her. When he realises who she is, he tries to win her affection despite the fact that she is now married, only to be ignored. He writes her several letters and receives no reply. The book ends when Onegin manages to see Tanya and is once more rejected in a speech admitting her love for Onegin while professing absolute loyalty to her husband. In echoing the speech he previously gave her, she also demonstrates her emotional and moral superiority to Onegin.

Major themes

A main theme of Eugene Onegin is the relation between fiction and real life. As art often imitates life, people too are often shaped by art. The romantic sister, Tatiana, is reading a romance novel when her mother tells her real life is not like that. The work is packed with allusions to other literary works and most of the main characters have been influenced and had their personalities shaped by, or modelled on, different works of literature.

Composition and publication

As with many other 19th century novels it was written and published serially, with parts of each chapter often appearing published in magazines before the first separate edition of each chapter was first printed. Many changes, some small and some large, were made from the first appearance to the very final edition made in Pushkin's lifetime. The following dates mostly come from Nabokov's study of the photographs of Pushkin's drafts that were then available and his study of other people's work on the subject.

The first stanza of Chapter One was started on May 9, 1823 and except for three stanzas (XXXIII, XVIII and XIX) finished on October 22, 1823. The remaining stanzas were completed and added to his notebook by the first week of October 1824. Chapter One was first published as a whole in a booklet on February 16, 1825 with a foreword that suggests Pushkin had no clear plan on how (or even whether he would) continue the novel.

Chapter Two was started on October 22, 1823 (the date when most of Chapter One had been finished) and finished by December 8, 1823 except for stanzas XL and XXXV, which were added sometime over the next three months. The first separate edition of Chapter Two appeared in October 20, 1826.

Many events occurred which interrupted the writing of Chapter Three. In January 1824 Pushkin stopped work on Onegin to work on The Gypsies. Except for XXV, Stanzas I-XXXI were added on September 25, 1824. Nabokov guesses that Tanya's Letter was written in Odessa between February 8, 1824 and May 31, 1824. Pushkin's misdemeanors in Odessa caused him to be restricted to his family estate Miskhaylovskoe in Pskov for two years. He left Odessa on July 21, 1824 and arrived on August 9, 1824. Writing resumed on September 5, 1824 and Chapter 3 was finished (apart from stanza XXXVI) on October 2, 1824. The first separate publication of Chapter Three was on October 10, 1827.

Chapter 4 was started in October 1824, by the end of the year Pushkin had written 23 stanzas and had reached XXVII by January 5 1825 at which point he starting writing stanzas for Onegin's Journey and worked on other pieces of writing. He thought it was finished on September 12, 1825 but later continued the process of rearranging, adding and omitting stanzas were till the first week of 1826. The first separate edition on of Chapter 4 appeared with Chapter 5 in a publication produced between January 31, 1828 and February 2, 1828.

The writing of Chapter 5 began on January 4, 1826 and 24 stanzas were complete before the start of his trip to petition the tzar for his freedom. He left on September 4, 1826 and returned on November 2, 1826. He completed the rest of the chapter in the week November 15, 1826 to November 22, 1826. The first separate edition on of Chapter 5 appeared with Chapter 4 in a publication produced between January 31, 1828 and February 2, 1828.

When Nabokov made his study on the writing of Onegin the manuscript of Chapter 6 was lost, but we know that Pushkin started Chapter 6 before he had finished Chapter 5. Most of the chapter appears to have been written before the beginning of December 19, 1826 when he returned from exile in his family estate to Moscow. Many stanzas appeared to have been written between November 22, 1826 and November 25, 1826. On March 23, 1828 the first separate edition of Chapter 6 was published.

Pushkin started writing Chapter 7 in March 1827 but aborted his original plan for the plot of the chapter and started on a different tack, completing the chapter on November 4, 1828. The first separate edition of Chapter 7 was first printed on March 18, 1836.

Pushkin intended to write a chapter called 'Onegin's Journey' which occurred between the events of Chapter 7 and 8, and in fact was supposed to be the eighth Chapter. Fragments of this incomplete chapter were published, in the same way that parts of each chapter had been published in magazines before each chapter was first published in its first separate edition. When Pushkin first completed Chapter 8 he published it as the final Chapter and included within its denouement the line nine cantos I have written still intending to complete this missing chapter. When Pushkin finally decided to abandon this chapter he removed parts of the ending to fit with the change.

Chapter 8 was begun before December 24, 1829 while Pushkin was in Petersburg. In August 1830, he went to Boldino (the Pushkin family estate) [1] [2] where he was forced to stay by an epidemic of cholera for three months. During this time he produced what Nabokov describes as an "incredible number of masterpieces" and finished copying out Chapter 8 on September 25, 1830. During the summer of 1831 Pushkin revised and completed Chapter 8 apart from 'Onegin's Letter' which was completed on October 5, 1831. The first separate edition of Chapter 8 appeared on January 10, 1931.

Pushkin wrote at least eighteen stanzas of a never-completed tenth chapter.

The first complete edition of the book was published in 1833. Slight corrections were made by Pushkin for the 1837 edition. The standard accepted text is based on the 1837 edition with a few changes due to the Tsar's censorship restored.

Characters in "Eugene Onegin"

The five main characters are Eugene Onegin, his friend Vladimir Lensky, an idealised Pushkin (the novel's narrator), Tanya Larina (Tatiana), and Olga Larina, two sisters.

The duel

In Pushkin's time, the early 19th century, duels were very strictly regulated. A second's primary duty was to prevent the duel from actually happening, and only when both combatants are unwilling to step down, make sure that the duel proceeds according to the formalised rules.[3] A challenger's second should therefore always ask the challenged party if he wants to apologise for his actions that have led to the challenge.

In Eugene Onegin, Lensky's second, Zaretsky, does not ask Onegin once if he would like to apologise, and because Onegin is not allowed to apologise on his own initiative, the duel takes place with the fatal consequences. As Zaretsky is described as classical and pedantic in duels (Chapter 6, Stanza XXVI), this seems very out of character for a nobleman. Zaretsky's first chance to end the duel is when he delivers Lensky's written challenge to Onegin (Chapter 6, Stanza IX). Instead of asking Onegin if he would like to apologise, he apologises for having much to do at home and leaves as soon as Onegin (obligatorily) accepts the challenge.

On the day of the duel, the day after Tatiana's name day on 13 January (Old Style), Zaretsky gets several more chances to prevent the duel from happening. Because dueling was forbidden in the Russian Empire, duels were always held at dawn. Zaretsky urges Lensky to get ready shortly after 6 o'clock in the morning (Chapter 6, Stanza XXIII), while the sun only rises at 20 past 8, because he expects Onegin to be on time. However, Onegin oversleeps (chapter 6, Stanza XXIV), and arrives on the scene more than an hour late.[3] According to the dueling codex, if a duelist arrives more than 15 minutes late, he automatically forfeits the duel.[4] Lensky and Zaretsky have been waiting all that time (chapter 6, Stanza XXVI), even though it was Zaretsky's duty to proclaim Lensky as winner and take him home.

When Onegin finally arrives, Zaretsky is supposed to ask him a final time if he would like to apologise. Instead, Zaretsky is surprised by the apparent absence of Onegin's second. Onegin, against all rules, appoints his servant Guillot as his second (Chapter 6, Stanza XXVII), a blatant insult for the nobleman Zaretsky.[3] Zaretsky angrily accepts Guillot as Onegin's second. By his actions, Zaretsky does not act as a nobleman should, but apparently he expects to be in the center of attention after the duel has finished.[3]

Allusions to actual history, geography, and current science

In the book Pushkin claims that Eugene Onegin is his friend, however the name "Onegin" is not an authentic Russian surname but derived from the river and lake Onega. This literary artifice serves to contradict the implied reality of this "friend". Lensky is similarly named after the Siberian river Lena.

Translations

There are a number of translations of the work into English of which the following are just a few.

Walter W. Arndt's 1963 translation (ISBN 0-87501-106-3) was written keeping to the strict rhyme scheme of the Onegin stanza and won the Bollingen Prize for translation. It is still considered one of the best translations.

Vladimir Nabokov severely criticised Arndt's translation, as he had criticised many previous (and later) translations. Nabokov's main criticism of Arndt's and other translations is that they sacrificed literalness and exactness for the sake of the prettiness of melody and rhyme and in 1964 he published his own scrupulously exact translation in four volumes. The first volume contains an introduction by Nabokov and the text of the translation. The Introduction discusses the structure of the novel, the Onegin stanza in which it is written and Pushkin's opinion of Onegin (using Pushkin's letters to his friends); and gives a detailed account of both the time over which Pushkin wrote Onegin and the various forms any part of it appeared in publication before Pushkin's death (after which there is a huge proliferation of the number of different editions). The second and third volume consists of very detailed and rigorous notes to the text. The fourth volume contains a facsimile of the 1837 edition. The discussion of the Onegin stanza contains the poem "On Translating Eugene Onegin", which first appeared in print in The New Yorker on January 8, 1955, and is written in two Onegin stanzas. The poem is reproduced there both so that the reader of his translation would have some experience of this unique form, and also to act as a further defense of his decision to write his translation in prose.

Nabokov's previously close friend Edmund Wilson reviewed Nabokov's translation[1] in the New York Review of Books, which sparked an exchange of letters there and an enduring falling-out between them.

While many despair at the loss of what is at first most appealing in Pushkin's novel, Nabokov's translation is essential reading for anyone who wishes to study Onegin at a high level without learning Russian. Also, a number of later translations which do attempt to preserve melody and rhyme have been helped by Nabokov's literal translation.

John Bayley has described Nabokov's commentary as '"by far the most erudite as well as the most fascinating commentary in English on Pushkin's poem" and the commentary as being "as scrupulously accurate, in terms of grammar, sense and phrasing, as it is idiosyncratic and Nabokovian in its vocabulary". Some consider this "Nabokovian vocabulary" a failing, for it might require even educated native speakers to reach for the dictionary from time to time, but most agree that it is elegant and accurate.

In 1977 Charles Johnston published another translation[2] trying to preserve the Onegin stanza, which is generally considered to surpass Arndt's. Johnston's translation is influenced by Nabokov. Vikram Seth's novel The Golden Gate was inspired by this translation.

James E. Falen (the professor of Russian at the University of Tennessee) published a translation in 1995 which was also influenced by Nabokov's translation, but preserved the Onegin stanzas (ISBN 0809316307)

Douglas Hofstadter published a translation in 1999, again preserving the Onegin stanzas, after having summarized the controversy (and severely criticized Nabokov's attitude towards verse translation) in his book Le Ton beau de Marot.

Tom Beck published a translation in 2004, preserving the Onegin stanzas (ISBN 1-903517-28-1).

Babette Deutsch published a translation in 1935 preserving the Onegin stanzas.

Stanley Mitchell has been commissioned to translate EO preserving the Onegin stanzas. The first two chapters have been published in the journal Modern Poetry in Translation.

Film, TV, or theatrical adaptations

Opera

Main articles: Eugene Onegin (opera), and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

The 1879 opera, Eugene Onegin, by Tchaikovsky, based on the book, is part of the standard operatic repertoire; there are various recordings of it, and it is regularly performed.

Prince Gremin's aria "To love must be young and old surrender" (Act III, Scene I) is partially hummed by the characters of Masha and Vershinin in Anton Chekhov's play Three Sisters. The tune hummed here may vary depending on audience and where it is performed, so a more well known tune may be used.

Incidental music

A staged version was produced in the Soviet Union in 1936 with staging by Alexander Tairov and incidental music by Sergei Prokofiev.

Film

The 1988 Decca/Channel 4 et al film directed by Peter Wiegl is a stunning visual presentation of the opera. The music, conducted by Sir Georg Solti, is competently played. The solos are also competent but the harmonies are weaker, especially (inexplicably) in the crucial prologue which takes the operatic start point to one-third of the way through the original novel. The synchronisation of the actors with the dubbed sung parts is poor. Onegin is presented as deliberately shooting to hit, not miss, and is unrepentant at the end, but the visual artistry and acting are unforgettable.

The 1999 film, Onegin, is an English adaptation of Pushkin's work. It was directed by Martha Fiennes and starred her brother Ralph Fiennes as Onegin, Liv Tyler as Tatiana, Irene Worth as Princess Alina and Toby Stephens as Lensky. It was something of a family project, as two other Fiennes siblings were involved: Magnus Fiennes wrote the music and Sophie Fiennes appeared in a minor role.

Footnotes

  1. http://www.government.nnov.ru/?id=3721, retrieved 13 July 2007.
  2. http://www.russianmuseums.info/M1890", retrieved 13 July 2007.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Template:Ru icon Yuri Lotman, Роман А.С. Пушкина «Евгений Онегин». Комментарий. Дуэль., retrieved 16 April 2007.
  4. V. Durasov, Dueling codex, as cited in Yuri Lotman, Пушкин. Биография писателя. Статьи и заметки., retrieved 16 April 2007.

External links

References

  • Aleksandr Pushkin, London 1964, Princeton 1975, Eugene Onegin a novel in verse. Translated from Russian with a commentary by Vladimir Nabokov ISBN 0-691-01905-3
  • Alexander Pushkin, Penguin 1979 Eugene Onegin a novel in verse. Translated by Charles Johnston, Introduction and notes by Michael Basker, with a preface by John Bayley (Revised Edition) ISBN 0-14-044803-9
  • Alexandr Pushkin, Basic Books; New Ed edition, Eugene Onegin: A Novel in Verse Translated by Douglas Hofstadter ISBN 0-465-02094-1
  • Yuri Lotman, Пушкин. Биография писателя. Статьи и заметки. Available online: [3]. Contains detailed annotations about Eugene Onegin.cs:Evžen Oněgin

da:Eugen Onegin de:Eugen Onegin es:Eugenio Oneguin eo:Eŭgeno Onegin fr:Eugène Onéguine ko:예브게니 오네긴 lt:Eugenijus Oneginas pl:Eugeniusz Oniegin ru:Евгений Онегин sk:Eugen Onegin sl:Jevgenij Onjegin fi:Jevgeni Onegin sv:Eugen Onegin zh:叶甫盖尼·奥涅金

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